Where was the Garden of Eden located?
Sorry, but there is no way to know where the Garden of Eden was. Here’s why… when Noah’s worldwide flood occurred it destroyed and changed the complete surface of the earth. Plus it is quite possible that the original single land mass at the time of creation was split apart into the continents during the flood. There is a verse that does explain some rivers that flowed through the garden before the flood.
Now the Lord God had planted a garden in the east, in Eden. A river watering
the garden flowed from Eden from there it was separated into four headwaters.
The name of the first is the Pishon, it winds through the entire land of Havilah,
where there is gold. The name of the second river is the Gihon, it winds through
the entire land of Cush. The name of the third river is the Tigris, it runs along
the east side of Asshur. And the fourth river is the Euphrates.
There is no place on earth today where there are four rivers with those names coming together as described in the text. Then, you ask, why do we find the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers in the Middle East today? People would often name rivers with familiar names that they would already know. There are names given to rivers here in America that are also names of rivers in United Kingdom; the Thames River in Connecticut, the Severn River in Maryland and the Trent River in North Carolina.
In a similar way, when Noah and his family came out of the ark after it landed, it would not have been unusual for them to use names they were familiar with from the pre-Flood world (the Tigris and Euphrates), to name places and rivers in the world after the Flood.